What are the sources of exposure to elemental and inorganic mercury and what are their health effects?
Elemental or metallic mercury is the liquid metal used in thermometers, button cell batteries (standard household batteries do not contain mercury), electrical switches, and some folk remedies and religious practices. In household products, where elemental mercury generally is contained in glass or metal, it does not pose a risk unless the product is damaged or broken and mercury vapors are released. At room temperature, uncontained mercury can evaporate and become an invisible, odorless toxic vapor. At higher temperatures, these concentrations increase. Even a few drops of mercury can raise air concentrations of mercury to potentially harmful levels, particularly in poorly-ventilated spaces. The longer people breathe the contaminated air, the greater the risk to their health. At high exposures, inhaled elemental mercury vapors can produce severe lung, gastrointestinal, and nervous system damage.
Inorganic mercury compounds take the form of mercury salts. They are generally white powders or crystals, with the exception of mercuric sulfide (cinnabar) which is red. Inorganic compounds, and organic compounds, such as phenylmercury acetate and ethylmercury, have been commonly used as fungicides, antiseptics or disinfectants. They also have been used in a variety of products. Most of these uses have been discontinued, but small amounts of these compounds can still be found as preservatives in some medicines. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration maintains a list of medications that contain mercury. Inorganic mercury may still be found in some skin-lightening and freckle creams.
- Drugs that contain mercury: http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Legislation/FederalFoodDrugandCosmeticActFDCAct/SignificantAmendmentstotheFDCAct/FDAMA/ucm100218.htm
- Mercury in skin products: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm294849.htm
Misuse or overuse of mercury-containing products can result in excessive exposure to inorganic and organic mercury compounds. Exposure to mercury compounds is primarily through ingestion, but can occur through other pathways. Organic mercury compounds are more readily absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and skin than are inorganic compounds. High exposures to mercury compounds can damage the gastrointestinal tract, the nervous system, and the kidneys.
More information about health effects that may result from exposure to elemental and inorganic mercury: http://epa.gov/mercury/effects.htm#elem
Information from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR):
- Toxicological profile of mercury: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?id=115&tid=24
- Mercury toxicology FAQs: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=113&tid=24
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- Topic #: 23002-21444
- Date Created: 1/19/2005
- Last Modified Since: 4/10/2013
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